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Effect of Mediterranean Diet During Pregnancy on Gut Microbiota and on the Epigenetics
Food allergies (AA) are adverse reactions to food. Over the last decade, the AA scenario has changed profoundly. In many countries, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence, persistence and severity of AAs and a consequent increase in the socio-economic impact associated with these conditions. For these reasons, there is a strong need to develop effective strategies to prevent these conditions. To date, the AA etiopathogenesis is not yet fully defined. Genetic factors may predispose certain subjects to the development of AA, but these alone can not explain the change observed in the AA scenario over the last few years, renewing interest in environmental factors. Numerous scientific evidence demonstrate the role of eating habits in influencing human health. Many of the effects of the diet on human health are due to a modulation of intestinal microbiosis. The regulation of the immune system is one of the pathways through which dietary modifications from the earliest times of life can alter the susceptibility of the individual to the development of allergic manifestations. The diet during pregnancy and lactation represents the earliest possible influence on the development of the baby's immune system. Observational studies suggest the association between maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation and development of allergic pathologies in the unborn, but the data are still preliminary. Often, other important parameters such as the atopic status of the parents, the type of delivery, the number of brothers, exposure to common allergens, maternal infections or early life, smoking exposure were not taken into account of cigarettes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is characterized by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, legumes and whole grains combined with a moderate consumption of red wine, and the use of olive oil as the main source of lipids. In some studies adherence to MD was inversely related to the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis, especially in children. High adherence to MD was associated with a positive change in intestinal microbiosis and the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), particularly butyrate, the main SCFA produced by intestinal fermentation of food fibers. SCFA regulates mucosal integrity and the immunological and non-immunological mechanisms involved in the development of oral tolerance. MD mechanisms during pregnancy in the prevention of childhood allergies are not yet fully known.
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|Eligible Ages||20 Years - 35 Years|
- - women
- caucasian ethnicity
- aged between 20 and 35 years
Exclusion Criteria:- proven presence of infections during pregnancy and at delivery, - ongoing malignancies, - major gastrointestinal tract malformations, - immunodeficiencies, - diabetes and other chronic diseases at each organ or apparatus level, - chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, - gastrointestinal function disorders, - celiac disease; - history of abdominal surgery with intestinal resection, - neuropsychiatric disorders, - central nervous system disorders, - vegan diet.
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|Federico II University|
The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.
|Principal Investigator Affiliation||N/A|
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University of Naples Federico II
Naples, , 80131
Roberto Berni Canani, MD, PhD